ⓘ Encyclopedia | Game encyclopedia


A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for entertainment or fun, and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work or art. Games are somet ..

Tabletop game

Tabletop games are games that are normally played on a table or other flat surface, such as board games, card games, dice games, miniature wargames or tile-based games.

Paper-and-pencil game

Paper-and-pencil games or paper-and-pen games are games that can be played solely with paper and pencils, usually without erasing. Examples of paper-and-pencil games are Tic-tac-toe, Sprouts, and Dots and Boxes. Other examples include: Hangman, Connect 5, M.A.S.H., Battleships, Paper Soccer, Golf, WedgoLogic, and MLine. Additionally, the term is used to distinguish role-playing games of the tabletop variety from role-playing video games, although those traditional role-playing games do not necessarily use either paper or pencils. In some board games, particularly abstract strategy games like Gomoku, a piece, once played, will not be moved or removed from the board. Such games can be played either as board games or as paper-and-pencil games, while many other paper-and-pencil games require the use of writing utensils.

Tile-matching video game

A tile-matching video game is a type of video game where the player manipulates tiles in order to make them disappear according to a matching criterion. In many tile-matching games, that criterion is to place a given number of tiles of the same type so that they adjoin each other. That number is often three, and these games are called match-three games. The core challenge of tile-matching games is the identification of patterns on a seemingly chaotic board. Their origins lie in late 1980s games such as Tetris, Chain Shot! SameGame and Puzznic. Tile-matching games were made popular in the 2000s, in the form of casual games distributed or played over the Internet, notably the Bejeweled series of games. They have remained popular since, with the game Candy Crush Saga becoming the most-played game on Facebook in 2013. Tile-matching games cover a broad range of design elements, mechanics and gameplay experiences. They include purely turn-based games but may also feature arcade-style action elements such as time pressure, shooting or hand-eye coordination. The tile matching mechanic is also a minor feature in some larger games. Video game researcher Jesper Juul therefore considers tile matching to be a game mechanic, rather than a distinct genre of games.


Draughts or Checkers is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque. The name derives from the verb to draw or to move. The most popular forms are English draughts, also called American checkers, played on an 8×8 checkerboard; Russian draughts, also played on an 8×8, and international draughts, played on a 10×10 board. There are many other variants played on 8×8 boards. Canadian checkers and Singaporean/Malaysian checkers also locally known as dum are played on a 12×12 board. English draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play.


Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga sometime before the 7th century. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi, janggi, and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century. Play involves no hidden information. Each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each piece type moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn. The objective is to checkmate the opponents king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a players pieces are used to attack and capture the opponents pieces, while supporting each other. During the game, play typically involves exchanging pieces for the opponents similar pieces, and finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent resigns, or, in a timed game, runs out of time. There are also several ways that a game can end in a draw. The first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Federation Internationale des Echecs FIDE, the games international governing body. FIDE also awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of which is Grandmaster GM. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE also organizes the Womens World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, and the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered recognition of chess as a sport. Several national sporting bodies e.g. the Spanish Consejo Superior de Deportes also recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010 Asian Games. There is also a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play with increasing success, to the point where the strongest programs play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concern about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards. One of these, Fischer Random Chess, has gained widespread popularity and official FIDE recognition.

Social-network game

A social-network game is a type of online game that is played through social networks. They typically feature multiplayer gameplay mechanics. Social-network games were originally implemented as browser games. As mobile gaming took off, the games moved to mobile as well. While they share many aspects of traditional video games, social-network games often employ additional ones that make them distinct. Traditionally they are oriented to be casual games. The first cross-platform "Facebook-to-Mobile" social-network game was developed in 2011 by a Finnish company Star Arcade. Social-network games are amongst the most popular games played in the world, with several products with tens of millions of players. Lil Green Patch, Happy Farm, Farm Town, YoVille and Mob Wars were some of the first successful games of this genre. FarmVille, Mafia Wars, FrontierVille, CityVille, Gardens of Time, Kantai Collection and The Sims Social are more recent examples of popular social-network games. Major companies that made or published social-network games include Zynga, Wooga, Bigpoint Games, Gameforge, Goodgame Studios, MegaZebra, 5 Minutes, Playfish, Plinga, Playdom, Kabam, Crowdstar, RockYou and Booyah.


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The Game (London novel)

The Game is a 1905 novel by Jack London about a twenty-year-old boxer Joe, who meets his death in the ring. London was a sports reporter for the Oakland Herald and based the novel on his personal observations.

15 puzzle

The 15-puzzle is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile missing. The puzzle also exists in other sizes, particularly the smaller 8-puzzle. If the size is 3×3 tiles, the puzzle is called the 8-puzzle or 9-puzzle, and if 4×4 tiles, the puzzle is called the 15-puzzle or 16-puzzle named, respectively, for the number of tiles and the number of spaces. The object of the puzzle is to place the tiles in order by making sliding moves that use the empty space. The n -puzzle is a classical problem for modelling algorithms involving heuristics. Commonly used heuristics for this problem include counting the number of misplaced tiles and finding the sum of the taxicab distances between each block and its position in the goal configuration. Note that both are admissible, i.e. they never overestimate the number of moves left, which ensures optimality for certain search algorithms such as A*.


Dice are small, throwable objects with uniquely marked sides that can rest in multiple positions. They are used for generating random numbers and are commonly used in tabletop games. Such games include dice games, board games, role-playing games, and games of chance. A traditional die is a cube with each of its six faces marked with a different number of dots pips from one to six. When thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being equally likely. Dice may also have polyhedral or irregular shapes and may have faces marked with numerals or symbols instead of pips. Loaded dice are designed to favor some results over others for cheating or entertainment.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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